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Understanding Golfer’s Elbow

Alternate Names: Golfer’s elbow is also referred to as medial epicondylitis, flexor tendinopathy, or pronator teres syndrome.


Golfer’s elbow, medically known as medial epicondylitis, is a condition that causes pain and inflammation in the tendons of the forearm muscles. Despite its name, this condition can affect not only golfers but also individuals who engage in repetitive wrist and forearm movements. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the various aspects of golfer’s elbow, including its symptoms, causes, and multiple treatment options.


The primary symptom of golfer’s elbow is pain and tenderness on the inner side of the elbow, which may radiate down the forearm. This pain is often exacerbated by activities that involve gripping, lifting, or repetitive wrist movements. Other symptoms may include stiffness, weakness, and difficulty in fully extending the arm.


Golfer’s elbow is characteristically caused by repetitive stress or overuse of the forearm muscles. Activities such as golfing, throwing, racket sports, weightlifting, and repetitive gripping can strain the tendons, leading to inflammation and pain. Additionally, poor technique, improper equipment, and inadequate warm-up can contribute to the development of golfer’s elbow.

Treatment Options:

  1. Rest and Modification of Activities: The first step in treating golfer’s elbow is to rest the affected arm and avoid activities that aggravate the condition. Modifying techniques or using equipment that reduces strain on the forearm can also be beneficial.
  2. Ice and Heat Therapy: Applying ice packs to the affected area can help reduce inflammation and alleviate pain. Heat therapy, such as warm compresses or hot showers, can promote blood flow and aid in the healing process.
  3. Physical Therapy: A physical therapist can guide you through specific exercises and stretches to strengthen the forearm muscles and improve flexibility. They may also use methods like ultrasound or electrical stimulation to promote healing.
  4. Medications: Over-the-counter pain relievers, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), can help manage pain and reduce inflammation. Although NSAIDs do reduce inflammation to temporarily relieve pain, they are responsible for 30% of hospital admissions for adverse drug side effects, mainly due to bleeding, heart attack, stroke, and kidney damage. In addition, from the first day of use, all NSAIDs increase the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, myocardial infarction, and stroke.
  5. Injections: In some cases, corticosteroid injections may be suggested to provide temporary relief. Side effects of cortisone, which is commonly injected for joint pain, includes thinning of the skin, easy bruising, weight gain, puffiness of the face, elevation of blood pressure, cataract formation, thinning of the bones, and a rare but serious form of damage to large joints (avascular necrosis). Due to risks, patients may only get this treatment once every several months.
  6. Brace or Splint: Wearing a brace or splint can help stabilize the affected area and reduce strain on the tendons. This can be particularly beneficial during activities that may exacerbate the condition.
  7. Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy (ESWT): ESWT is a non-invasive procedure that uses shockwaves to stimulate healing in the affected tendons. This treatment option is typically reserved for cases that do not respond to conservative measures.
  8. Surgery: In severe cases of golfer’s elbow that do not improve with conservative treatments, surgery may be considered. The procedure involves removing damaged tissue and repairing the affected tendons.


Golfer’s elbow can be a painful and limiting condition, but with proper understanding and treatment, individuals can find relief and regain functionality. By recognizing the symptoms, identifying the causes, and exploring various treatment options, individuals can take proactive steps towards managing and overcoming golfer’s elbow.

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