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Understanding Carpal Tunnel Syndrome


Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a widespread condition that affects the hand and wrist. It is also referred to as median nerve compression or median nerve entrapment. CTS occurs when the median nerve, which runs from the forearm to the hand, becomes compressed or squeezed at the wrist. In this article, we will explore the symptoms, causes, and various treatment options for carpal tunnel syndrome.


The symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome can vary from person to person, but some common signs include:

  1. Numbness or tingling sensation in the thumb, index finger, middle finger, and half of the ring finger.
  2. Hand weakness or clumsiness, making it difficult to perform fine motor tasks.
  3. Pain or discomfort that radiates from the wrist to the forearm or even the shoulder.
  4. Worsening symptoms at night, often causing sleep disturbances.
  5. Decreased grip strength and difficulty holding onto objects.


Carpal tunnel syndrome is typically caused by a combination of elements that increase pressure on the median nerve. Some common causes include:

  1. Repetitive hand and wrist movements: Activities that involve repetitive motions of the hand and wrist, such as typing, using a computer mouse, or playing musical instruments, can contribute to the development of carpal tunnel syndrome.
  2. Hand and wrist anatomy: Certain anatomical factors, such as a smaller carpal tunnel or a wrist fracture, can increase the risk of developing this condition.
  3. Medical conditions: Conditions like diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and hypothyroidism can increase the likelihood of developing carpal tunnel syndrome.
  4. Hormonal changes: Hormonal changes during pregnancy or menopause can lead to fluid retention and swelling, which can compress the median nerve.

Treatment Options:

Fortunately, there are several treatment options available for CTS. The choice of treatment depends on the severity of symptoms and individual circumstances. Some common treatment options include:

  1. Wrist splinting: Wearing a splint or brace that keeps the wrist in a neutral position can help alleviate symptoms by reducing pressure on the median nerve.
  2. Medications: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) prescribed to reduce pain and inflammation. Although NSAIDs do reduce inflammation to temporarily relieve pain, they are responsible for 30% of hospital admissions for adverse drug side effects, mainly due to bleeding, heart attack, stroke, and kidney damage. In addition, from the first day of use, all NSAIDs increase the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, myocardial infarction and stroke.
  3. Physical therapy: Specific exercises and stretches can help improve wrist strength and flexibility, reducing symptoms.
  4. Lifestyle modifications: Making ergonomic changes to your work environment, taking frequent breaks, and practicing proper hand and wrist posture can help prevent and manage carpal tunnel syndrome.
  5. Injections: Corticosteroid injections may be recommended to reduce inflammation and relieve pain in certain conditions. Side effects of cortisone, which is commonly injected for joint pain, includes thinning of the skin, easy bruising, weight gain, puffiness of the face, elevation of blood pressure, cataract formation, thinning of the bones, and a rare but serious form of damage to large joints (avascular necrosis). Due to risks, patients may only get this treatment once every several months.
  6. Surgery: In severe cases where conservative treatments fail to provide relief, carpal tunnel release surgery may be recommended. This procedure involves cutting the ligament forming the roof of the carpal tunnel, relieving pressure on the median nerve.


Carpal tunnel syndrome can significantly impact daily activities and quality of life. However, with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, most individuals can find relief from their symptoms. It is advisable to consult with a healthcare professional for a precise diagnosis and personalized treatment plan. By understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for carpal tunnel syndrome, individuals can take proactive steps to manage this condition effectively.

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